Bilingualism pab cov txuj ci tshiab ntawm cov neeg tsis hnov ​​lus



Bilingualism pab cov txuj ci tshiab ntawm cov neeg tsis hnov ​​lus

Ob qhov kev tshawb fawb tau ua nyob rau hauv Spain tau qhia tias cov neeg mob tsis hnov ​​​​lus ob hom lus tsim kev txawj lus thiab lub peev xwm zoo dua rau cov neeg uas sib txuas lus hauv ib hom lus xwb. Mark Guiberson, Ph.D., ntawm University of Wyoming, tau nthuav tawm cov txiaj ntsig thaum lub rooj sib tham thib 2 ntawm Kev Kawm Ob Hom Lus rau cov menyuam yaus uas muaj kev cog lus cog lus thiab hnov ​​​​lus, uas tau muaj nyob rau lub Kaum Ib Hlis hauv Madrid thiab Barcelona.

Kev xaiv ntawm Spain rau cov kev tshawb fawb no tsis yog ib qho xwm txheej, txij li 53% ntawm cov neeg laus nyob ntawd - raws li kev suav pej xeem sau los ntawm National Statistics Institute - hais ob lossis ntau hom lus. Qhov no yog vim Spain khav theeb ntau lub zej zog tswj hwm tus kheej, qhov xwm txheej uas ua rau muaj ntau yam lus. Lus Askiv, lub sijhawm no, yog ib hom lus hais txawv teb chaws tshaj plaws. Spain kuj tau pom muaj kev nce qib hauv cov kev kawm txhawb nqa Spanish-English ob hom lus, nrog 379 Madrid cov tsev kawm koom nrog hauv cov phiaj xwm zoo li no, nrog rau 68% ntawm cov menyuam yaus hauv tsev kawm theem pib hauv ntau thaj tsam.

Qhov kev paub lus nplua nuj no thiab kev paub ob hom lus ntawm nws cov zej zog tswj hwm hauv cheeb tsam ua rau Spain qhov chaw zoo tshaj plaws rau kev kawm txog ob hom lus hauv cov menyuam yaus uas tsis hnov ​​​​lus, raws li Mark Guiberson tau hais hauv qab ntawm nws qhov kev nthuav qhia, hais tias tsis muaj pov thawj tshawb fawb uas kawm hom lus thib ob yuav siv mus. los ntawm lossis puas tsuaj rau thawj hom lus kawm. Qhov tseeb, cov pov thawj taw qhia rau qhov tsis sib xws. Nws xaus lus tias cov menyuam yaus uas tsis hnov ​​​​lus uas tau hais ob hom lus muaj qib siab dua hauv lawv thawj hom lus tshaj li lawv cov phooj ywg hauv tsev kawm ntawv monolingual hauv lawv cov lus tib leeg. Tej yam kev tsis pom kev tsis pom zoo nyob rau hauv thiab cov kev sib tw thesis ntawm Cummins, piv txwv li, nws cov pov thawj txhawb tus qauv hu ua Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP). Tsawg kawg ib feem peb ntawm cov tsev neeg (38% ntawm cov neeg tshawb fawb) xav tias poob siab los ntawm kev qhia lawv cov menyuam raws li kev sib txuas lus ob hom lus uas lawv tau raug yaum kom tsis txhob ua raws. Qhov no tej zaum yuav yog vim li cas kev kawm ntawm cov menyuam yaus ua ob hom lus tau txais yuav hauv tsuas yog 59% ntawm cov tsev. Guiberson cov lus teb tau los tsim qauv thiab ua kom pom tias muaj dab tsi cuam tshuam rau tsev neeg hauv lawv txoj kev txiav txim siab xaiv qhov kev xaiv no rau cov menyuam yaus tsis hnov ​​lus.

Cov uas muaj feem cuam tshuam rau kev txiav txim siab yog cov txheeb ze, kws kho mob hais lus, thiab lwm tsev neeg uas muaj menyuam lag ntseg. Audiologists thiab otorhinolaryngologists tsis tshua muaj kev cuam tshuam, nrog rau cov niam txiv muab qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws rau cov kev xaiv uas tau muab los ntawm tsev kawm ntawv. Cov niam txiv ua, qhov tseeb, hu rau ntau lub sijhawm nyob ze lawv lub tsev, nrog rau cov ntaub ntawv zoo dua ntawm kev xaiv kev sib txuas lus los pab lawv nrog cov kev txiav txim siab tseem ceeb no.

Tus kws tshaj lij Asmeskas no tau muab nws qhov kev nthuav qhia rau qee leej txiv thiab leej niam, kws tshaj lij hais lus, kws kho lub cev nqaij daim tawv, thiab lwm tus kws tshaj lij, thiab nws tau tshuaj xyuas cov kev tshawb fawb yav dhau los thoob ntiaj teb ntawm kev hais lus ob hom lus, qhia tias ob peb txoj haujlwm ntev tau ua rau cov menyuam tsis hnov ​​lus. . Vim qhov sib txawv no, nws hu rau kev tshawb fawb txuas ntxiv.

Cov cuab yeej mloog lus thiab cov khoom cog

"Cov txiaj ntsig ntawm ob qhov kev tshawb fawb (hauv Spain) qhia tias cov menyuam yaus uas muaj ob hom lus uas tsis hnov ​​​​lus qhia tau hais tias muaj peev xwm hais lus piv tau lossis ntau dua li ntawm lawv cov phooj ywg kawm lus. Qhov no yog qhov kev tshawb pom zoo thiab ib qho uas, ua ke nrog kev kuaj mob thaum ntxov ntawm kev lag ntseg thiab kev nkag mus rau cov cuab yeej tam sim no xws li cov khoom siv hnov ​​​​lus thiab cog lus, tuaj yeem ua rau muaj ntau hom lus ob hom lus ntawm cov menyuam yaus no, "Guiberson tau taw qhia tias yog ib qho ntawm nws cov lus xaus.

Ua haujlwm los ntawm qhov chaw no, nws cov lus pom zoo rau cov tsev neeg yog "lawv yuav tsum xav txog txhua txoj kev sib txuas lus rau lawv cov menyuam tsis hnov ​​lus, suav nrog kev kawm ob hom lus, kom lawv muaj sijhawm zoo ib yam li lawv cov phooj ywg hnov ​​lus." Nws yaum cov tsev neeg kom tshem lawv tus kheej ntawm "kev ntxhov siab" raws li lub tswv yim yuam kev ntawm "hais lus tsis meej pem", uas tsuas yog tsis lees paub los ntawm cov txiaj ntsig ntawm cov kev tshawb fawb saum toj no. Nws kuj tau taw qhia tias kev kawm hom lus thib ob yuav tsum "tso" rau nws, txhais tau tias nws yuav tsum tau mloog ntau dua "ob peb teev hauv chav kawm txhua lub lis piam."

Cov lus xaus ntawm ob qhov kev tshawb fawb no tau ua nyob rau hauv Spain tau luam tawm raws li cov ntawv tshawb fawb tshawb fawb hauv Askiv hauv American Journal of Audiology thiab Cochlear Implants International. T-oigo tseem yuav tshaj tawm cov ntawv no ua lus Mev rau cov kws tshaj lij uas xav nyeem cov ntawv ua tiav, tshaj tawm Dale Sindell, uas tau lees paub qhov ua tiav ntawm kev tuav lub rooj sib tham ob zaug hauv ob lub nroog loj tshaj plaws hauv Spanish. Qhov kev tshwm sim tau txais kev txaus siab los ntawm cov neeg hauv Bilbao, Vigo, Valencia, Pamplona, ​​Valladolid, thiab tseem los ntawm Tebchaws Meskas. Sindell (nrog Guiberson nyob rau hauv daim duab), tus tsim thiab quab yuam tom qab T-oigo, yog tus neeg siv khoom siv lub mloog pob ntseg, ib yam li nws tus tub, thiab nws tab tom hu rau txhua tus neeg coj nws "cov nplej ntawm cov xuab zeb" mus rau kev tshawb fawb ntxiv. hauv daim teb no. “Ua ke, peb tuaj yeem txhim kho los ntawm pab pawg niam txiv, cov chaw pabcuam rau cov neeg xiam oob khab, thiab cov tsev kawm ntawv uas muaj ntau txoj haujlwm rau cov menyuam no.

Qhov kev tshawb fawb hluav taws xob thiab tsis qhia npe no tau ua los ntawm cov tsev neeg nrog cov menyuam yaus uas, hauv 69% ntawm cov neeg mob, tau txais kev cog lus cog qoob loo (32% muaj kev cog lus thib ob), thiab leej twg, hauv 49% ntawm cov neeg mob siv cov cuab yeej mloog. Feem coob (63%) tau raug kev txom nyem los ntawm qhov tsis hnov ​​​​lus zoo. Cov ntsiab lus tau kos los ntawm 13 ntawm Spain 17 cov zej zog tswj hwm tus kheej, feem ntau yog los ntawm Madrid. Nws tau raug sau tseg tias cov phooj ywg hauv chav kawm thiab cov niam tais yawm txiv yog cov uas txhawb nqa menyuam yaus tshaj plaws thiab koom nrog lawv txoj kev txiav txim siab, ua raws li cov txheeb ze thiab cov phooj ywg, nrog rau tsev neeg ntawm lwm cov menyuam yaus tsis hnov ​​lus. Kev koom tes ntawm lwm tus - hauv qhov kev txiav txim no - suav nrog cov kws kho mob hais lus, kws kho suab, thiab cov kws qhia tshwj xeeb; tsawg dua, cov kws kho mob otorhinolaryngologist, kws qhia ntawv, thiab cov thawj coj ntawm cov tsev kawm ntawv; qhov tsawg tshaj plaws yog GPs, kws kho mob, thiab lwm tus kws pab tswv yim. Plaub caug cuaj feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov niam txiv tau thov tias lawv yuav tsum tau mus ntev kom tau txais cov ntaub ntawv hais txog cov kev xaiv rau lawv cov menyuam, thiab 54% hais tias lawv xav kom muaj lwm txoj hauv kev. Tsis tas li ntawd, 71% tau thov tias hom kev pabcuam tsev kawm ntawv tau tsim los ua ib qho tseem ceeb hauv kev txiav txim siab ntawm hom kev sib txuas lus twg los xaiv, ib yam li muaj cov kev pabcuam nyob ze hauv tsev hauv 40% ntawm cov neeg tshawb fawb. Peb caug yim feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov me nyuam tsis hnov ​​​​lus cuam tshuam rau cov me nyuam uas nws niam txiv teb rau qhov kev ntsuam xyuas yog ob hom lus, thiab 70% ntawm cov niam txiv tau hais tias lawv ntseeg hais tias cov me nyuam muaj hypoacusis muaj peev xwm los tsim kev txawj ntse hauv ob hom lus thiab lawv tsis pom qhov no yog ib qho nyuaj ua hauj lwm rau lawv cov me nyuam.

"SOLOM kev soj ntsuam"

Txoj kev tshawb fawb thib ob tau ua, SOLOM Observation, tshuaj xyuas "kev txawj lus ntawm ob hom lus ntawm cov menyuam yaus uas tsis hnov ​​​​lus hauv Spain" piv nrog cov menyuam yaus hais lus, thiab koom nrog kev ntsuam xyuas ntawm cov niam txiv txog lawv tus menyuam txoj kev vam meej. Hauv qhov no, 51 tus neeg raug soj ntsuam los ntawm cov nplooj ntawv web ntawm cov pab pawg ntawm cov niam txiv ntawm cov menyuam tsis hnov ​​lus, cov tsev kawm ntawv, thiab cov kev kho mob ntawm cov menyuam yaus hnub nyoog nruab nrab ntawm peb thiab 18 xyoo, thiab cov uas tsis muaj kev xiam oob qhab. Lawv teb hauv online los ntawm kev sib txuas kom ruaj ntseg thiab cov ntawv tshawb fawb suav nrog Cov Tub Kawm Ntawv Cov Lus Pom Kev Sib Tham (SOLOM, tsim hauv 2010 los ntawm Echevarría thiab Graves). "Qhov no yog txhawm rau ntsuas kev paub lus ntawm qhov ncauj hauv cov menyuam yaus raws li lub sijhawm rau peb cov menyuam yaus thiab tshem lawv ntawm kev thaiv. Txawm hais tias lawv tsis hnov ​​​​lus, lawv tuaj yeem muaj lub neej yav tom ntej zoo ib yam li cov menyuam yaus hnov ​​​​lus zoo, "hais tias Guiberson.

Tsev neeg yog tus yuam sij

Lwm qhov kev txheeb cais uas zoo li tshem tawm cov kev tsis txaus siab txog seb tib neeg puas tuaj yeem tau hom lus thib ob yog tias 250m cov neeg thoob ntiaj teb muaj qhov tsis hnov ​​​​lus tsis zoo, hnyav, lossis tsis hnov ​​​​lus (raws li World Health Organization cov duab los ntawm xyoo no) thiab ntawm 50% thiab 67% ntawm lub ntiaj teb cov pej xeem yog ob hom lus, "yog li ntawd ib tug cia siab tias yuav muaj feem ntau ntawm cov neeg tsis hnov ​​lus yuav los ntawm cov zej zog uas siv ntau hom lus," Guiberson taw qhia. Txhawm rau piav qhia qhov no, ib qho xwm txheej tshwj xeeb tau muab tso rau tom ntej, ntawm Julia, uas tau tawm hauv Mexico mus rau Tebchaws Meskas uas muaj hnub nyoog 10-hli thiab tom qab ntawd tau pom tias muaj qhov tsis hnov ​​​​lus hnyav rau ob sab. Nws tau txais kev cog qoob loo ntawm tsib xyoos, hnub nyoog lig raws li cov txheej txheem pom zoo, txawm hais tias qhov no tsis txwv nws txoj kev kawm lus Mev thiab lus Askiv. Thiab nws lub chaw kawm ntawv tau pib qhia tawm tsam qhov no. Peb xyoos tom qab cog, tus me nyuam no tswj tau ob hom lus yooj yim, thiab tam sim no nws mus kawm ntawv theem nrab thiab hloov ntawm ob hom lus.

Nkag mus rau hauv kev nthuav dav hais txog ob txoj kev tshawb fawb tau ua nyob rau hauv Spain, Guiberson piav qhia tias thawj zaug yog ua raws li kev txiav txim siab cuam tshuam nrog kev sib txuas lus thiab ob hom lus hauv cov menyuam yaus uas muaj hypoacusis, nrog kev koom tes ntawm 71 leej txiv thiab leej niam nug hauv lawv thawj zaug. lus, raug nug los ntawm kev siv cov kab lus sib txawv los qhia txog qib (los ntawm 1 txog 5) ntawm kev nkag siab, kev paub, lus, lus, thiab qauv sau ntawv. Tsis muaj qhov sib txawv tseem ceeb ntawm ob pawg - ob hom lus thiab monolingual - ntawm kev sib piv hnub nyoog, qib tsis hnov ​​​​lus, lossis cochlear implant status. Muaj qhov sib txawv, txawm li cas los xij, hauv SOLOM cov qhab nia, thiab ib qho ntawm cov no tau txais txiaj ntsig: "Cov pab pawg ob hom lus tau sau npe SOLOM cov txuj ci siab dua li pawg lus." Tsib caug-ob feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov niam txiv tau ntsuas lawv tus menyuam lub peev xwm nrog hom lus thib ob kom zoo dua li qhov lawv xav tau ua ntej lawv pib kawm, thaum 28% tau lees tias lawv tau mus txog qib uas lawv muaj, qhov tseem ceeb, kwv yees lawv yuav ncav cuag. Cov menyuam yaus uas hnov ​​​​lus tsis hnov ​​​​lus ob hom lus qhia tau hais tias thawj qhov kev txawj lus zoo tshaj li lawv cov phooj ywg monolingual, "ib qho tshwm sim nrog ntau cov kev tshawb fawb qhia tias cov me nyuam tsis hnov ​​lus muaj peev xwm ua tau ob hom lus," hais tias tus kws tshaj lij los ntawm University of Wyoming . Hais txog "kev txwv", nws tau taw qhia tias SOLOM kev txawj ntse yog nyob ntawm niam txiv txoj kev xav, thiab lawv cov kev cia siab yog nyob ntawm tus kheej kev paub, kev ntseeg, thiab lwm yam.

Guiberson kuj tseem hais ntxiv tias qee qhov ntawm cov kev tshawb fawb tsis yog hais lus thib ob uas lawv cov menyuam paub, thiab txog qhov uas lawv tau tawm tswv yim. Nyob rau hauv kev hwm ntawm cov lus pom zoo, Guiberson txhawb txoj kev loj hlob ntawm hom lus thib ob no, siv cov tswv yim Kev Hais Lus-Kev Hais Lus (cov lus luv luv, cov lus sib piv, rov hais dua ...), thiab kev koom tes ntawm cov menyuam yaus hauv kev sib pauv nrog cov neeg hais lus txawv teb chaws.

Nyem qhov no mus nyeem Mark Guiberson cov ntawv tiav

Dr. Mark Guiberson yog ib tug kws tshawb fawb hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas thiab sau ntau yam kev tshawb fawb txog kev hais lus ob hom lus hauv cov me nyuam uas hais lus tsis zoo. Nws tau luam tawm ntau cov ntawv hauv cov ntawv xov xwm tshawb fawb. Nws tau qhuab qhia hauv University of Wyoming thiab ua nws thawj zaug mus ntsib Spain hauv 1996 thaum nws tseem yog menyuam kawm ntawv.

José Luis Fernández, tus thawj coj ntawm Suab infos Spain

Txhais: PW, Photos: JLF thiab Dip-Fotolia



Tau qhov twg los: Bilingualism pab cov txuj ci tshiab ntawm cov neeg tsis hnov ​​lus

Txuas :Bilingualism pab cov txuj ci tshiab ntawm cov neeg tsis hnov ​​lus

REF: Tus Hais Kom Mloog Kom Ntsej Muag Lub suab nrov nrovITE lub rooj sib hais cov khoom siv
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